Program No. 02/2020(Item No.7)
(Category No.014/2019)

 I. Inorganic Chemistry
 Metallurgy: Occurrence of metals based on standard electrode potential – concentration of ores – calcination, roasting, and smelting – reduction using carbon and other reducing agents –
electrolytic reduction – hydrometallurgy – Ellingham diagram. Refining of metals – electrolytic refining – oxidative refining – zone refining – Van Arkel method. Extractive metallurgy of Li,
Ni, Ti, and U – Ferrous metallurgy – manufacture of steel by the open-hearth process – Alloys – composition and uses of German silver, Brass, Bronze, Gunmetal, Alnico. Inorganic Polymers: Synthesis, structure, and applications of silicones, phosphazenes, S-N compounds, S-P compounds. Silicates, zeolites. Some industrially important inorganic materials: Cement – Manufacture, composition, and setting. Glass – Manufacture – annealing – types of glasses – use. Ceramics – Definition, traditional and new ceramics – the structure of ceramics – uses – Inorganic fertilizers – essential nutrients for plants – nitrogenous, phosphatic and potash fertilizers. Role of selenium in
Xerography. Refractory materials – carbides and borides.
Non Aqueous Solvents: General properties- classification- self ionization and leveling effectreaction in non-aqueous solvents- protic and aprotic nonaqueous solvents- examples- solutions
of metals in liquid ammonia- self ionization of liquid ammonia- liquid SO2, liquid HF. 

II. Physical Chemistry
Properties of liquids: Surface tension and its measurement by capillary rise and stalagmometer method, factors affecting Surface tension, Viscosity, Poisuelle’s equation, Determination of viscosity by Ostwald’s viscometer, Refractive index and its determination by
Abbe refractometer. Dilute solutions: Molarity, Molality, Normality and Mole fraction. Colligative properties, relative lowering of vapor pressure, Osmotic pressure, can't Hoff equation and molecular mass, Isotonic
solutions, Determination of the molecular mass of solutes by Beckmann’s method, Rast’s method, and cooling curve method. Abnormal molecular mass, Can't Hoff factor, Determination of degree of dissociation and association. 
Surface Chemistry & Adsorption: Physical and chemical adsorption – Adsorption isotherms – Langmuir. Freundlich– Gibbs adsorption equation –– Mathematical derivation – Surface films -
Determination of surface area using Langmuir and B.E.T. equations.
Colloids: Types and classification – preparation of colloids – purification – protective colloids –
kinetic, optical and electrical properties – surfactants – Gels – Emulsions. Properties and applications. Zeta potential, Donnan membrane equilibrium – Dorn effect.
Ionic Equilibrium: Theories of acids and bases: Arrhenius, Lowry-Bronsted and Lewis theories – Leveling and differentiating solvents – pKa, pKb, and pH. Applications of common ion effect
and solubility product – Hydrolysis of salts of all types – Degree of hydrolysis and hydrolysis
constant and its relation with kw. Buffer solutions – Mechanism of buffer action-buffer index – Henderson equation.
Thermodynamics: Basic concepts- system, surroundings, types of systems. Extensive and intensive properties, macroscopic properties. State functions and path functions. Types of Processes, Zeroth law of thermodynamics Definition of internal energy and enthalpy. Heat capacities at constant volume and at constant pressure, the relationship between Cp and Cv.
The mathematical statement of the first law. Reversible process and maximum work. Calculation of
work, heat, internal energy change and enthalpy change for the expansion of an ideal gas under reversible isothermal and adiabatic condition.
The Joule-Thomson effect –Sign and magnitude of Joule-Thomson coefficient, inversion
Thermochemistry – standard states. Enthalpies of formation, combustion, and neutralization.
Integral and differential enthalpies of solution. Hess’s law and its applications. Kirchoff’s

III. Industrial aspects of Organic Chemistry
Raw materials for organic compounds-Petroleum, natural gas, fractionation of crude oil, cracking, reforming, hydroforming, isomerization Coal Types, structure, properties, a distillation of Coal and chemicals derived from them.
Separation and Purification Techniques: General principles involved in the separation of precipitates, standards of purity, mixed melting point and boiling point; purification of solid organic compounds – extraction, use of immiscible solvents, solvent extraction, crystallization, fractional crystallization, sublimation, desiccants, vacuum drying. Purification of liquids – distillation, vacuum distillation, fractional distillation, steam distillation, azeotropic distillation – principles and techniques. The chemical constitution of Plants,. isolation procedure and quality control Chemical constitution of plants-including carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, fats, waxes, volatile oils, terpenoids, steroids, and alkaloids. Various isolation procedures for active ingredients with an example for alkaloid eg. Vinca alkaloids, reserpine, for steroids- sapogenin, diosgenin. Parmaceutical quality control- sterility testing, pyrogenic testing, glass testing. 

Analytical Chemistry
Theoretical principles of qualitative and quantitative analysis: Applications of solubility product and common ion effect in the precipitation of cations–Interfering acid radicals and their elimination (oxalate, fluoride, borate, phosphate, chromate, arsenite and arsenate). Primary and secondary standards – standard solutions – theory of titrations involving acids and bases,
KMnO4, K2Cr2O7, I2 and liberated I2. Indicators – Theory of acid-base, redox, adsorption indicators – complexometric titrations. Precipitation methods: Gravimetric Analysis -
Mechanism of precipitate formation - Factors affecting the solubility of precipitates – coprecipitation and post precipitation - Effect of digestion - washing, drying and ignition of
 Chromatography - classification of methods - Elementary study of adsorption, paper, thin layer,
ion exchange and gas chromatographic methods.
Instrumental Methods of Analysis: Atomic absorption spectroscopy- flame emission spectroscopy- applications spectrophotometry- laws of spectrophotometry- applications of spectrophotometry-colorimetry, thermal methods- introduction to TG, DTA and DSC instrumentations and applications.
Research in Science Selecting a topic – hypothesis-design of the experiment: variables, correlation, and causality, sampling, use of controls, experimental bias, analysis, results, discussion of
results, models. Summary of the scientific methods. Writing Science.

Environmental Chemistry
Environment, nature of environmental threats and the role of chemistry. Chemistry of the air, water and soil environment. Factors affecting the environment.
Water pollution, air pollution, and Soil pollution, factors controlling and monitoring pollutions.

Industrial Chemistry
Unit process, unit operations, flow diagrams, Energy balance and material balance (basic concepts only.) Fuels, calorific value, Basic concepts of I S O. Fluid flow, streamline flow.
Turbulent flow, viscosity –Reynold’s number. Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids.
 Heat transfer. Types of heat exchangers. (Shell type and plate type.) Refrigeration cycles. Safety in the chemical industry. First aids.
Basic concepts –branched and network polymers. Classification and nomenclature. Properties of polymers. Mol wt. glass transition temperature solubility and viscoelasticity. Manufacture and users of PF resins. Importance of polymers in controlled drug delivery and packaging. Polymer processing, compounding. Composites classification, micro, and nanocomposites. Conducting polymers. PA, PPP, PPg(SN)x, etc.
Soaps and detergents-Basic chemical compositions of soaps, manufacture Surface active agents, builders, additives, fillers. Basic concepts of perfuming and coloring. Bio-degradability.
Cosmetics –basic concepts –composition –production and classification of creams –sunscreen and suntan lotions –deodorants talcum powder –identifiers, lipsticks.
Food processing –coloring and flavoring agents, food preservation –viscosity builders – bulking agents, artificial sweeteners – food adulteration –packaging and catering.
An overview of technical sampling of solids, liquids, and gases. Fundamental concepts or theory and industrial application of particle size analyzer.
spectrophotometry –flame, photometry –AAS -Xray fluorescence ion-selective electrodes – chromatography. 
Basic Concepts, Classification –methods of dyeing –acid –direct -reactive –disperse –vat cationic sulfur indigo –azo phthalocyanine –dyes. Synthetic Dyes A brief idea of metal complex dyestuffs. (introduction to natural dyes and it’s importance in cotton textile dyeing) fluorescent and
brightening agents –hair dyes –dyeing standards and Health hazards.
Paints –varnishes and lacquers.
Polymers- Types of polymerization- addition, condensation, and coordination polymerization. Ziegler –Natta catalyst. Synthesis and applications of urea-formaldehyde resins, Bakelite, polythene, PVC, PMMA, Nylon-6,6. Natural and synthetic resins. Buna-N, Buna-S, Neoprene, Polystyrene. Biodegradable polymers- two examples- starch and cellulose. Number average molecular weight and weight average molecular weight of polymers. Composites The catalyst in Petrochemical Industry: Various catalysts used in the petrochemical industry, their preparation, structure, applications and selectivity, the importance of petroleum and petroleum industry in the context of the Indian economy. 

Green Chemistry
Role of Chemical Industries in polluting the environment-Limitations of conventional waste management-pollution prevention-birth of green chemistry- introduction to the principles of green chemistry-atom economy calculation(simple reactions)-production of Ibuprofen-less hazardous chemical syntheses, designing safer chemicals-Bhopal gas tragedy- new greener
syntheses, safer solvents and auxiliaries, ionic liquids-super critical fluids CO2 and H2O, advantages of SCFs.
Design for energy efficiency-principle of a microwave oven, microwave-assisted organic syntheses, simple examples- renewable feedstock- biodiesel, preparation, advantages, catalysis,
green catalysts- inherently safer chemistry for accident prevention. Green chemistry practices in research, educational and commercial laboratories- lab safety signs- introduction to microscale experiments. 

NOTE: - It may be noted that apart from the topics detailed above, questions from other topics prescribed for the educational qualification of the post may also appear in the question paper. There is no undertaking that all the topics above may be covered in the question paper 


ഒരു അഭിപ്രായം പോസ്റ്റ് ചെയ്യൂ

0 അഭിപ്രായങ്ങള്‍