Program No. 11/2019 (Item No.9) 
(Category No.079/2018)

Factors of soil formation, soil-forming processes, weathering of rocks and minerals, transformations, soil profile, soil classification with emphasis on soil taxonomy, soil survey and its types, soil series characterization, soil survey interpretation
Soil texture, mechanical analysis, textural classes; Soil structure – characterization and management; Soil aggregation, soil water, soil moisture constants
Soil fertility parameters – essential plant nutrients – macro and micronutrients, factors affecting availability, critical limits in soil, correction of deficiencies, soil fertility evaluation, soil testing, soil health, soil quality in relation to sustainable agriculture.

Crop production technology
Classification of crops – agronomic, botanical, horticultural, ontogenic, special categories, etc.;
Seeds and sowing, tillage and tilth, crop density and geometry,
Crop water requirement, irrigation – scheduling criteria and methods, quality of irrigation water
Plant propagation – methods, propagating structures; Training and pruning; Pollination,
pollinizers and pollinators; Fertilization and parthenocarpy; Plant bio-regulators in horticulture
Package of practices recommendations – rice, maize, finger millet, bajra, sorghum, cowpea,
green gram, black gram, groundnut, sesamum, coconut, areca nut, cashew, tea, coffee, banana,
mango, pineapple, okra, amaranthus, solanaceous vegetables, cucurbitaceous vegetables, pepper,
cardamom, medicinal and aromatic plants/

Cropping systems, farming systems, organic farming, and sustainable agriculture
Cropping pattern, cropping systems, multiple cropping systems, farming system – concept, types and systems, evaluation of cropping and farming systems, Integrated farming systems – characteristics, components, and advantages; Homestead farming – features, components, advantages; Sustainable agriculture - Indicators of sustainability, conservation agriculture strategies, HEIA, LEIA, LEISA; Organic agriculture – history, concepts, objectives, green manures, cover crops, composting techniques; the current status of organic farming – initiatives in India and Kerala – NPOP, Accreditation agencies – Certification agencies - NSOP

Rainfed agriculture and watershed management
Rainfed agriculture – types, problems, and prospects in India and Kerala, soil and climatic conditions in rainfed areas; Drought – types of drought, the effect of drought on crops, crop adaptation and mitigation; Water harvesting – importance, techniques, Watershed management – concept, objectives, factors in watershed management Remote sensing – components, sources of radiation, platforms - Application of remote sensing techniques; Geographical Information System – application – land use surveys, watershed and drought management.

Land use planning
Land use planning – concepts and techniques, soil site suitability evaluation, land capability classification, land irritability classification, approaches for managing soils and landscapes in the framework of the agroecosystem, major soil groups of India and Kerala, Agroecological Zones and Units of Kerala with reference to the recent classification of NBSS&LUP Soil erosion – effects and factors, types, mechanisms of water erosion, principles of erosion control, wind erosion, soil conservation approaches, erosion control structures Soil degradation – extent, types, problems, remediation, monitoring, reclamation of problem soils.

Crop protection
Pest and diseases of major crops of Kerala; Methods of control – host plant resistance, cultural, mechanical, physical, legislative, biological and chemical; Integrated pest and disease management; Weed management - major weeds of Kerala, principles, and methods of weed management, herbicides – types/classification, aquatic weeds and parasitic weeds and their management; Ecological engineering for the management of pests and diseases.

Social sciences
Extension / agriculture development / rural development programmes launched by ICAR /
Government of India; Community development – meaning, definition, concept, and principles;
Agricultural credit – meaning, definition, need, classification; 4Rs and 3Cs of credits; Sources of
agricultural finance; Microfinancing including KCC, Lead bank scheme; Higher financing
institutions – RBI, NABARD, ADB, IMF, World Bank, Insurance and Credit Guarantee
Corporation of India; Basic guidelines for the preparation of project reports – Bank norms.
Agricultural marketing – classification and characteristics, market functionaries and marketing
channels, quality control and labeling (AGMARK)

NOTE: - It may be noted that apart from the topics detailed above, questions from other topics prescribed for the educational qualification of the post may also appear in the question paper. There is no undertaking that all the topics above may be covered in the question paper 


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