General Knowledge, Current Affairs & Renaissance in Kerala 

Salient Features of Indian Constitution
Salient features of the Constitution - Preamble- Its significance and its place in the interpretation of the Constitution.

Fundamental Rights - Directive Principles of State Policy - Relation between Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles - Fundamental Duties.

Executive - Legislature - Judiciary - Both at Union and State Level. - Other Constitutional Authorities.

Centre-State Relations - Legislative - Administrative and Financial. 

Services under the Union and the States. 

Emergency Provisions. 

Amendment Provisions of the Constitution. 

Social Welfare Legislations and Programmes
Social Service Legislations like Right to Information Act, Prevention of atrocities against Women & Children, Food Security Act, Environmental Acts, etc. and Social Welfare Programmes like Employment Guarantee Programme, Organ and Blood Donation, etc.


Towards A New Society
Introduction to English education - various missionary organizations and their functioning funding of educational institutions, factories.printing press etc.

Efforts To Reform The Society 

(A) Socio-Religious Reform Movements
SNDP Yogam, Nair Service Society, Yogakshema Sabha, Sadhu Jana Paripalana Sangham, Vaala Samudaya Parishkarani Sabha, Samathwa Samajam, Islam Dharma Paripalana Sangham, Prathyaksha Raksha Daiva Sabha, Sahodara Prasthanam etc 

(B) Struggles and Social Revolts
Upper cloth revolts.Channar agitation, Vaikom Sathyagraha, Guruvayoor Satyagraha, Paliyam Sathyagraha. Kuttamkulam Sathyagraha, Temple Entry Proclamation, Temple Entry Act.Malayalee Memorial, Ezhava Memorial, etc.
Malabar riots, Civil Disobedience Movement, Abstention movement etc. 

Role Of Press In Renaissance
Malayalee, Swadeshabhimani, Vivekodayam, Mithavadi, Swaraj, Malayala Manorama, Bhashaposhini, Mathnubhoomi, Kerala Kaumudi, Samadarsi, Kesari, AI-Ameen, Prabhatham, Yukthivadi, etc

Awakening Through Literature
The novel, Drama, Poetry, Purogamana Sahithya Prasthanam, Nataka Prashtanam, Library movement etc

Women And Social Change
Parvathi Nenmenimangalam, Arya Pallam, A V Kuttimalu Amma, Lalitha Prabhu.Akkamma Cheriyan, Anna Chandi, Lalithambika Antharjanam and others

Leaders Of Renaissance
Thycaud Ayya Vaikundar, Sree Narayana Guru, Ayyan Kali.Chattampi Swamikal, Brahmananda Sivayogi, Vagbhadananda, Poikayil Yohannan(Kumara Guru) Dr Palpu, Palakkunnath Abraham Malpan, Mampuram Thangal, Sahodaran Ayyappan, Pandit K P Karuppan, Pampadi John Joseph, Mannathu Padmanabhan, V T Bhattathirippad, Vakkom Abdul Khadar Maulavi, Makthi Thangal, Blessed Elias Kuriakose Chaavra, Barrister G P Pillai, TK Madhavan, Moorkoth Kumaran, C. Krishnan, K P Kesava Menon, Dr.Ayyathan Gopalan, C V Kunjuraman, Kuroor Neelakantan Namboothiripad, Velukkutty Arayan, K P Vellon, P K Chathan Master, K Kelappan, P. Krishna Pillai, A K Gopalan, T R Krishnaswami Iyer, C Kesavan. Swami Ananda Theerthan , M C Joseph, Kuttippuzha Krishnapillai and others

Literary Figures
Kodungallur Kunhikkuttan Thampuran, KeralaVarma Valiyakoyi Thampuran, Kandathil Varghese Mappila. Kumaran Asan, Vallathol Narayana Menon, Ulloor S Parameswara Iyer, G Sankara Kurup, Changampuzha Krishna Pillai, Chandu Menon, Vaikom Muhammad Basheer. Kesav Dev, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, Ponkunnam Varky, S K Pottakkad and others 


Inorganic Chemistry

The atomic spectrum of Hydrogen, Rydberg equation, Bohr Theory, Schrodinger wave equation 
Chemical bonding, Lattice energy – Born Haber Cycle, Fajan’s rules, electro negativity scales, dipole moment, Hydrogen bond, Hybridisation, VSEPR theory, LCAO method 
Chemical periodicity 
Concepts of acids and bases, Hard-Soft acid-base concept, Non-aqueous solvents. 
Main group elements and their compounds: Allotropy, structure and bonding, industrial importance of the compounds 
Transition elements and coordination compounds: structure, bonding theories, spectral and magnetic properties 
Inner transition elements: spectral and magnetic properties 
Organometallic compounds: synthesis, bonding and structure, and reactivity. 
Bioinorganic chemistry: photosystems, porphyrins, metalloenzymes, oxygen transport, electron- transfer reactions; nitrogen fixation, metal complexes in medicine. 
Nuclear chemistry: nuclear reactions, fission, and fusion, radio-analytical techniques and activation analysis, carbon dating and rock dating. 

Physical Chemistry
Basic principles of quantum mechanics: Postulates; exactly- solvable systems States of matter-Gaseous state, Ideal gas equation, Deviation from ideal behavior– Solid state, Space lattice, Laws of Crystallography, X-ray diffraction– Liquid state 

Chemical thermodynamics: Laws, state and path functions and their applications; Maxwell’s relations; spontaneity and equilibria; temperature and pressure dependence of thermodynamic quantities 

Electrochemistry: Nernst equation, redox systems, electrochemical cells; DebyeHuckel theory; electrolytic conductance – Kohlrausch’s law and its applications; ionic equilibria; conductometric and potentiometric titrations, reference electrodes. 

Chemical kinetics: Empirical rate laws and temperature dependence; collision and transition state theories of rate constants; Order and molecularity; enzyme kinetics; salt effects; homogeneous catalysis; photochemical reactions. Colloids and surfaces: Stability and properties of colloids 

Ionic Equilibrium: Concepts of Acids and Bases, ionization of weak electrolytes. pH, Buffer solutions, Henderson equation. Hydrolysis of salt 

Organic Chemistry 
Stereochemistry: Configurational and conformational isomerism in acyclic and cyclic compounds 
Examples-Optical and Geometrical isomerism. 

Aromaticity: Benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds 

Organic reactive intermediates Reaction Intermediates: Generation, stability, and reactivity of carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes. 

Organic reaction mechanisms involving addition, elimination and substitution reactions with electrophilic, nucleophilic or radical species. 

Common named reactions and rearrangements 

Chemistry of natural products: Carbohydrates, proteins and peptides, Oils and fats, nucleic acids, terpenes, steroids and alkaloids, Vitamins. 

Analytical Principles and Instrumental Methods 
Principles of volumetric analysis – primary standard – standard solutions normality and molarity, molality, theory of acid-base titrations, permagnometric and dichrometric titrations, iodometry and complexometric titrations, gravimetric analysis, Theory of acid-base indicator, redox indicators, adsorption and metallochromic indicators. Principles of colorimetric titration. Principle of chromatography. 

Evaluation of analytical data – accuracy and precision, classification of errors. Detection and correction of determinate errors, standard deviation, variance and coefficient of variation. 

Principles of UV-Visible, Infrared and NMR Spectroscopy, Application of HPLC, GC and Mass spectrometry. 

Chemistry in Everyday life 
Polymers-classification, commercially important polymers, biodegradable polymers 

Dyes-Classification and applications 

Drugs-Antipyretic, analgesic, antiseptic, antibiotic, tranquilizers 

Pesticides and chemical fertilizers, soaps and detergents, food preservatives, artificial sweeteners. 

Scope and importance of biochemistry in agriculture – Plant cell organelle structure and function – photosynthesis, C3, C4, and CAM pathways, photo respiration – biochemistry of nitrogen fixation – nitrate assimilation – sulfate reduction and amino acid formation – biochemistry of seed germination and development – fruit ripening- phytohormones – vitamins and enzymes bioenergetics 

Biochemistry of soil humus formation - nutrients transformation – N, P, S; trace metal interaction with humic substances- the significance of chelation reactions in the soil – reactive functional groups of humic substances – clay – organic matter complexes – humus – pesticides interactions in soil 

Soil microbial biomass – root-soil interface – microbiology and biochemistry of root-soil interface – soil enzymes – the microbial transformation of nutrients in the soil – biofertilizers – biowaste management 


Rocks and minerals – weathering and soil formation – soil physical properties- soil texture- soil structure- bulk density – particle density –porosity soil colour- soil consistency- soil water- retention and movement of soil water soil temperature and soil air- soil colloids- CEC and AEC – soil organic matter carbon cycle- soil fertility and nutrient management- soil quality indicator assessment of soil health- soil health card- soil bioremediation 

Problem soils- acidic-, saline, sodic and physically degraded soil- management of problem soil- types of soil erosion and measures to conserve. 

Soil fertility and soil productivity, nutrient sources – fertilizers and manures; essential plant nutrients – functions and deficiency symptoms 

Fertilizer nitrogen, Fertilizer phosphorus, Fertiliser Sulphur, Micronutrient fertilizers – Sources, Forms, Use and Management 

Fertilizer use efficiency 

Soil fertility evaluation – various methods 

Instrumental Analysis in agriculture- Potentiometry, Conductometry, Spectrophotometry, Chromatographic techniques, Atomic Absorption, flame photometry, Mass spectrometry, and X-ray diffractometry. 

Soil texture- soil consistence- soil structure – densities of soil Soil water: content and potential, soil water retention, soil- water constants, measurement of soil water content, the energy state of water, soil water potential, soil- moisture characteristics curve; hysteresis, measurement of soil- moisture potential. 

Water flow in saturated and unsaturated soils, Poiseuille’s law, Darcy’s law; hydraulic conductivity, permeability, and fluidity, hydraulic diffusivity; measurement of hydraulic conductivity in saturated and unsaturated soils. 

Infiltration - Soil air- oxidation-reduction potential – mode of energy transfer in soil – energy balance- thermal properties of soil 


Elements of equilibrium thermodynamics, chemical equilibria, electrochemistry, and chemical kinetics 

Soil colloids:- Goldschmidt’s law of crystal chemistry -, inorganic and organic colloids – principles of silicate clay structure, the origin of charge, concept of the point of zero charges (ZPC) and its dependence on variable-charge soil components, surface charge characteristics of soils; diffuse double layer theories of soil colloids; electrometric properties of soil colloids; 

Sorption properties of soil colloids; - the relative stability of clay minerals, soil organic matter – a fraction of soil organic matter and different fractions, clay origins interactions & Metal-Organic Complexes 

Ion exchange processes in soil; cation exchange – theories based on the law of mass action ( Kerr - Vanselow, Gopon equations, hysteresis, Jenny’s concept), adsorption isotherms, Donnan-membrane equilibrium concept, clay-membrane electrodes and ionic activity measurement, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics; anion and ligand exchange – inner sphere and outer-sphere surface complex formation, fixation of oxyanions hysteresis in sorption-desorption of oxy-anion and anions, the shift of ZPC on ligand exchange. AEC, CEC; Ion exchange system in humid tropical soils 

Potassium, phosphate and ammonium fixation in soil 

Chemistry of acid soil – liming materials and action- chemistry of salt-affected soils and amendments 

Soil, water, and air pollution problems associated with agriculture, nature, and extent. 
Nature and sources of pollutant- agricultural, industrial, urban wastes, fertilizers and pesticides, acid rain, oils spills, etc; air, water, and soil pollutants their CPC standards and effect on plants, animals and human beings. Sewage and industrial effluents – their composition and effects on soil properties/health, and plant growth and human beings; soil as a sink for waste disposal. 

Remediation/amelioration of contaminated soil and water; remote sensing application in monitoring and management of soil and water pollution. 

Pesticides & Toxic elements – effect on plant and human health and on soil microorganisms – salt-sensitive crops 

Estimation of dissolved and suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological demand (BOD), nitrate and ammoniacal nitrogen and phosphorus and heavy metal content in effluents. 

Water Quality - Parameters used to assess water quality – Physical parameters (temperature, color, odor, turbidity, foam and froth, suspended solids, etc.), chemical parameters (BOD, COD, pH, hardness, carbonate, and bicarbonate, nitrate, chloride, total salt, cations ( Na, Ca, Mg, toxic elements and heavy metals and biological parameters (bacteria coliform, algae, virus, etc.)

Water quality indices and suitability of irrigation water – agronomic practices in relation to problematic soils; cropping pattern for utilizing poor quality ground waters 

The Environment Protection Act, The Air Act, The Water Act, The Wildlife Protection Act and Forest Conservation Act, Woman and child welfare and Role of information technology on the environment and human health.

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